What is Proctology? What Condition They Treat

Proctology, also known as colorectal surgery, is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. Medical professionals who specialize in proctology are called proctologists or colorectal surgeons.


Conditions treated by proctologists

  1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen and inflamed blood vessels in the anus or rectum that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding.
  2. Anal fissure: Small tears in the lining of the anus, often caused by passing large or hard stools, causing pain and bleeding.
  3. Anal abscesses: infected pockets of pus that can form near the anus or rectum.
  4. Fistula: Abnormal tunnels that can develop between the anus or rectum and the skin around the anus.
  5. Anal warts: warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that can appear around the anus
  6. Rectal prolapse: When the rectum protrudes through the anus, either partially or completely.
  7. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): chronic conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis that cause inflammation and damage to the digestive tract
  8. Colorectal cancer: Cancerous growth in the colon or rectum.
  9. Fecal incontinence: Inability to control bowel movements, leading to involuntary leakage of stool.
  10. Constipation: Difficulty passing stool, often due to hard stools or issues with bowel movements.

Proctologists use a variety of diagnostic tools and techniques, such as colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and other imaging studies, to identify and assess these conditions.

They employ both surgical and non-surgical treatments to manage various colorectal disorders and provide proper care to their patients. If necessary, proctologists may collaborate with other specialists, such as gastroenterologists and oncologists, to ensure comprehensive and effective patient care.

What types of procedures do Proctologists do?

Proctologists, also known as colorectal surgeons, perform a wide range of procedures to diagnose, treat, and manage conditions affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. Some common procedures conducted by proctologists include:

  1. Hemorrhoidectomy: surgical removal of hemorrhoids, which are swollen and inflamed blood vessels in the anus or rectum.
  2. Fistulotomy: a surgical procedure to treat anal fistulas by cutting open and draining the abnormal tunnel.
  3. Anal fissurectomy: surgical removal of an anal fissure, a small tear in the lining of the anus.
  4. Sphincterotomy: An incision made in the anal sphincter muscles to relieve the pain and pressure associated with anal fissures or certain types of anal fistulas.
  5. Anal Abscess Drainage: surgical drainage of an anal abscess, which is an infected pocket of pus near the anus or rectum.
  6. Rectal Prolapse Repair: Surgical correction of rectal prolapse, where the rectum protrudes through the anus
  7. Anal Wart Removal: Surgical removal of anal warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV)
  8. Colectomy: partial or complete surgical removal of the colon (large intestine), often performed to treat conditions like colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  9. Colostomy: creation of an opening (stoma) in the abdominal wall to redirect feces into a colostomy bag when a portion of the colon is removed or needs to heal.
  10. Colon Resection: Removal of a diseased or damaged section of the colon and reconnecting the healthy ends
  11. Colonoscopy: a diagnostic procedure to examine the colon and rectum using a flexible tube with a camera (colonoscope).
  12. Sigmoidoscopy: a procedure to visualize the sigmoid colon and rectum using a flexible tube with a light and camera (sigmoidoscope).
  13. Banding: a procedure to place rubber bands around hemorrhoids to cut off their blood supply, causing them to shrink and fall off.
  14. Injection sclerotherapy: injecting a chemical solution into hemorrhoids to shrink them
  15. Anal Manometry: A test to measure the strength and coordination of the anal sphincter muscles and rectum

These are just some examples of the procedures that proctologists may perform. The specific treatment approach depends on the patient’s condition and its severity, and proctologists often work closely with gastroenterologists and other specialists to provide comprehensive care to their patients.


Lesions of the colon or rectum can actually present with a wide variety of symptoms, and hemorrhoids are one of the most common rectal disorders. However, it is important to note that the presence of these symptoms does not necessarily indicate the presence of lesions or other medical conditions.

Only a qualified medical professional can provide an accurate diagnosis through proper evaluation and testing. Here are some other symptoms that may be associated with colon or rectal issues:

  1. Abdominal Pain: persistent or intermittent pain in the abdominal region, which may vary in intensity and location.
  2. Rectal bleeding: blood in the stool or on the toilet paper after bowel movements.
  3. Mucus and pus from the anus: discharge of mucus or pus from the rectum or anus.
  4. Bowel Difficulty: Changes in bowel movements, such as difficulty passing stools, straining, or a feeling of incomplete evacuation
  5. Bloating: feeling of fullness or abdominal distension due to gas or fluid accumulation.
  6. Diarrhea: frequent, loose, or watery bowel movements.

Proctology Meaning

Here’s a table showing the term “proctology” and its meaning in several major languages:






The medical specialty of the rectum and anus, dealing with lower gastrointestinal disorders.



La especialidad médica que trata el recto y el ano, abordando trastornos gastrointestinales inferiores.



La spécialité médicale du rectum et de l’anus, traitant les troubles gastro-intestinaux inférieurs.



Das medizinische Fachgebiet des Mastdarms und Afters, das sich mit Erkrankungen des unteren Gastrointestinaltrakts befasst.



La specialità medica del retto e dell’ano, che si occupa di disturbi gastrointestinali inferiori.



A especialidade médica do reto e ânus, lidando com distúrbios gastrointestinais inferiores.



De medische specialisatie van het rectum en de anus, gericht op aandoeningen van het onderste maagdarmkanaal.



Медицинская специальность, связанная с пр reprocessing toolsоблемами прямой кишки и ануса, которая занимается заболеваниями нижних отделов пищеварительной системы.



लोअर गैस्ट्रोइंटेस्टाइनल विकारों के साथ मलाशय और गुदा की चिकित्सा विशेषता।

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, proctology, also known as colorectal surgery, is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract, including the rectum and anus. Proctologists, or colorectal surgeons, are medical professionals who specialize in this area.

Overall, proctology plays an important role in the management of lower gastrointestinal disorders, and recognizing symptoms helps health professionals identify and address underlying health concerns more effectively. If you have any specific health concerns or symptoms, it is essential to consult a qualified medical professional for accurate diagnosis and proper care.

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